Reproduction, an important key for production
Talking of a healthy animal, we cannot only see it as a whole, but as a group of systems working together in sync. Reproductive system is an important one among all systems.
Each of male and female in Avian, will contribute half of the genetic information that will create a new hatched chick. Even thought the reproductive system of poultry seems similar to the one of mammals; there are major differences. For example: most species of birds (including poultry) have only the left ovary and oviduct functional. The female embryo has both ovaries but then later on, only the left one will develop and become functional.
Other big reproductive difference in poultry is the capacity to lay eggs and the physiology behind it.
As shown in Figure 1 the left ovary and oviduct are conformed from different parts that will provide the structures needed for the formation of a fertile egg. During ovulation a follicle (the yolk) is released from the ovary, captured in the infundibulum (place that sperm is waiting) and moved thought the oviduct where it becomes deposits of various tissues according to a predetermined order (Y. Nys and N. Guyot, 2011). During it passing thought the magnum the egg becomes its albumen, essential part of the egg white. In the isthmus the inner shell membranes are formed, followed by the layering of the eggshell in the uterus.
The duration between the yolk entrance and the finished egg is laid is about 25 h depending on genetics. Breeders or laying hens have different eggs with different purpose but the anatomy of the egg itself won’t change. The fertile egg presents a complex form of potential life that is constructed from many layers that give it the structure and capacity to grow life inside. Therefore, it is very important to understand the anatomy of the egg to be able enhance the performance of it:
- Shell1: A semipermeable membrane of calcium carbonate crystals filled with pores that allow the oxygen and moisture to pass through. As a protection against pathogens there is also an external layer called cuticula which is on top of the eggshell.
- The inner and outer membrane2: They are working to avoid bacterial infection. These layers prevent the invasion of bacteria to the inner part of the egg.
- Air cell3: It’s an air space formed when the contents of the egg cool down and contract after the egg is laid. It is really important during the hatching phase.
- Albumen4: It is a source of protein and protection for the embryo (also called egg white)
- Chalaza5: It is the structure of the egg that maintains the yolk on its correct position.
- Egg yolk6: It is a rich source of vitamins and fat, where the germinal disk (that can develop to an embryo) is located.
Considering the unique anatomy and physiology of the egg and the chicken, there are two parameters that become key in the path to improve the production and that will help us to have a better performance: the fertility of the breeders and the eggshell quality.
An important aspect that can be tackled when referring to the reproductive systems performance is the fertility. The fertility of breeder flocks is partly related to the diet, such as the quantity of Zinc. As it is well known, Zinc is an important trace mineral which is involved in multiple biological processes of the poultry metabolism: growth, immune system and normal functioning of reproductive systems (Anshan, S et al 1990). Studies show that dietary supplementation of Zinc has shown beneficial effects on laying performance, improvement of fertility, embryo survival and egg quality in laying hens.
XVET Zincotin is a product that contains organic bound Zinc as well as biotin and multiple amino acids formulated for the improvement of fertility in chicken. When adding minerals like Zinc it’s important to have a good intestinal absorption avoiding competitive intestinal absorption with other minerals such as iron or copper. When zinc is organic bound is easily absorbed from the intestine due to the alternatives routes that it can take to get thought the intestinal wall; organic zinc doesn’t compete with other mineral absorption channels making the organic bound zinc contained in Zincotin a good source of this mineral. All ingredients contained in Zincotin help to the proper growth of the cell for a better performance, not only of the breeder, but also a better chick quality.
A good chick quality is a multifactorial challenge that partly relies on the quality of the hatching egg. To ensure a proper embryo development as well as a good egg yield one aspect that has to be emphasized is the eggshell quality.
The eggshell is a protective shield for the contain of the egg, giving not only a structure but also a membrane that allows the egg to exchange gas and humidity through it. A good egg shell quality is affected by various factors such as strain of the animals, age, usage of medications, stress and nutrition. One important factor that can be enhance is nutrition. When given a good source of calcium, phosphorus and Vitamin D3 the hen will have a higher chance to produce a good quality eggshell. The source of the minerals is not only important but also the ratio between them. A ratio of 2:1 between calcium and phosphorus is require to have a proper absorption of both of the minerals in the gut from the chicken (Scott et al., 1982). Better egg shell quality is vital. For instance, minimizing the microscopic breakage of eggs avoid microfractures during incubation or a higher pathogen pressure caused by a higher density of pores in the eggshell.
XVET products such as Cal D Phos and Ovostrong provide a good source of minerals plus other essential ingredients in a perfect balanced formula for a better eggshell quality and laying rate.
The smart formula of XVET GmbH products helps to have a better and more profitable production. For more information please contact us by firstname.lastname@example.org .