Alternatives to Antibiotic Growth Promoters in Poultry, A Peruvian Experience
Even though antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) are allowed to be widely used in the Peruvian poultry industry, some big broiler and layer companies have started new approaches in order to replace the AGP by novel alternatives like nutraceuticals, which include probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids and their salts and plant extracts among others.
This new trend reveals the awareness of the threat of irrational use of antibiotics in food animals which are dangerous for human health (public concern) and showing the importance that how poultry and livestock are raised.
We in VHD Sanidad Animal started to move toward this trend in 2012 when signed an agreement with XVET Germany in order to introduce it´s products as AGP alternatives (NAGP).
The effect of Zincotin, XVET Germany on broiler breeder performances was estimated in this study.
The experiment was done at a broiler breeder farm in North of Iran. 30.278 birds (Arbor Acres Plus) were evaluated in 8 houses of this farm from week 40 to 67 of the production period. The experimental farm consists of 3 houses as treatment group (Zincotin) and 5 houses as control. All houses had similar conditions and with the density (Birds in every square meter) of 6.04.
The number of hens in the treatment and control group were 10.932 and 17.368 respectively. This groups had 765 and 1213 roosters in treatment and control groups as well. Even though the sex ratio at week 26 (Before starting the experiment) was 8.2% the experiment started with the Female to male ratio (⚤) of 6% for both treatment and control group. Environmental situation, diseases, spiking and available healthy roosters in the farm were affecting the designed ⚤.
Commercial livestock production has been increasing due to the high demand for food, however, this could also increase health problems both for livestock and humans if not made under the right conditions such as the right animal density per house and good management. Obviously, health complications are reducing efficiency in production and have a negative effect on turnover and general economy therefore, the disease must be controlled precisely. There are several treatments which could help disease control but none of the treatments would be effective without having good biosecurity strategies in the farm.
Biosecurity is key to control and reduce diseases in a farm and consequently reduce the overuse of antibiotics. Simply, biosecurity is helping to reduce the antibiotic resistance threat and increasing animal welfare by blocking and suppressing disease challenges with precise control (management) and obeying good hygiene and security strategies.
In a farm, there are two different types of biosecurity’: Terminal and Continuous Biosecurity.
In Pig Topics: Cost-effective formula enhances feed intake and relieves stress
In edition 34 number 1 (2019) of Pig Topics Magazine page 18, XVET shares its know-how on Natural Antibiotic Growth Promoters such as Aromax, the key product based on essential oils that is also a cost-effective formula that enhances the feed intake.
Read the complete text here:
“Due to the rising problems of antibiotic resistance, eco-friendly, non-antibiotic growth promoters (NAGP) have been developed and used successfully.
It is known that plant primary and secondary compounds may beneficially affect animal health and production. They can act as immunomodulators, antioxidants, digestive stimulants or promote directly or indirectly performance and quality of animal growth.
Coccidia which is a common protozoan in domestic birds and other fowl is capable of developing resistance to antibiotics. Coccidiosis affects global food production causing economic losses that are globally estimated to be around 3 billion $ per year. This loss is caused by different coccidian species such as E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella., and depending on the species of the Eimeria involved, the infestation increases intestinal problems and causes immunosuppression in poultry flocks all around the world.
In cases of subclinical coccidiosis, production performance, water, and feed intake decreases, and animals will become more vulnerable to other diseases, especially to necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens, or Salmonella infections. If not managed properly and necessary actions are not taken, subclinical coccidiosis may develop into clinical coccidiosis. A proper prevention programme against coccidiosis will also help to decrease the linked bacterial problems of the intestinal channel as well.
Healthy animals just like healthy people, don’t need antimicrobials, and not all infections and diseases, need to be treated with antibiotics. Misuse, excessive use, or wrong use of antibiotics in humans and animals, is known to be the primary cause of the rise of superbugs, bacteria that have grown resistant to many antibiotics.
Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat, with major economic and health impact. World Bank estimated that drug-resistant infections will be responsible for a drag between 1.1 and 3.8% by 2050, on global GDP (Gross Domestic Products). A two years’ review in the UK concluded that 700,000 deaths each year can be attributed to Antimicrobial resistance.
Dr. Zeinali, a very experienced clinical veterinarian in the poultry industry has for many years explored effective approaches to reducing Antibiotic Growth Promoters in animal rearing and consequently reducing bacterial resistance. In this article Dr. Zeinali shares short but on-point insights on how you can also create a “Better Tomorrow” by adopting a NAGP approach.
” I have worked for more than 32 years as a clinical veterinarian and consultant with a focus on diagnosis, treatment, prevention, nutrition, management in layer breeder, broiler breeder, commercial layer, and commercial broiler farms.
According to my extensive background and experience I recommend following principles to reduce the consumption of the treatment antibiotics and eliminate the growth promotor antibiotics in the poultry industry:
Antibiotics have been widely used in animal production for many years now, mainly for therapeutic purposes, additionally for prophylaxis, and finally as a growth promoter in sub-therapeutic dosages. In accordance of the Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration of 1992, which arbours the idea, “Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty, shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation”, first the developed European countries such as Sweden, and following that the whole European Union area, have banned the use of antibiotic growth promoters, and also have limited the use of molecules that are relevant to human health, in livestock. Finally this year USA has joined the regulation and as well as Far East countries such as Thailand, Indonesia, etc. also are following a strong projection of decreasing the antibiotic usage in general. This positive approach, of course, brings a certain responsibility of such as improving the biosecurity, enhancing management measures, focusing on nutrition, the handling of the digestive tract, the use of functional additives, whilst most important of them focusing on tissue integrity, immunity, reducing oxidative stress, and also aiming to decrease as much as possible the bacterial load, that will be shed to the environment.
Understanding basic physiological and biological characteristics of the digestive system nowadays, is a base of modern nutrition of livestock. Gastrointestinal tract proposes the most important task: the nutritional absorption; and therefore its mucosa must be managed to remain undisturbed. Only a healthy intestinal tract can ensure optimal absorption, which is the main gate to the genetical capacity of a growing animal. Focusing on this one essential fact, and delivering right nutritional tools, will make our path to non-antibiotic growth enhancement, easier and smoother.
Prebiotics are defined as non-digestible or partially digestible food ingredients that beneficially stimulate the growth or activity of the beneficial flora. Food ingredients to be classified as prebiotic must have characteristics such as neither to be hydrolyzed nor absorbed in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract. A good example would be, MOS (Mannanoligosaccharides) which is derived from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall. Literature shows that bacteria with fimbriae of mannose affinity, such as Escherichia coli or Salmonella spp., will readily attach MOS, and this will avoid them to attach the intestinal mucosa, preventing them to colonize and multiply. This will lead to an increased villi length, and healthy mucosa, with a better resorption surface; and more goblet cells along the gastrointestinal channel.
Reducing antibiotic resistance with monoglycerides and free fatty acids
Antimicrobials have been used in animal feed for about 70 years to treat diseases, boost growth and obtain improvement in productivity (FAO 2018). Use of antibiotics to promote animal growth has been banned in European Union (EU) since January 1, 2006. Europe has done it and USA is in progress. Antimicrobial resistance remains a serious threat to public health worldwide. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, 2017 (ECDC 2017) from many European countries is reported that high percentages of isolates with resistance to key antimicrobial groups still exist which shows great concern and represent a serious threat to patient safety. Overview of the annual morbidity and mortality of antibiotic-resistant infections in the United States, estimating their number at approximately 2 million and the number of death associated with these infections at 23,000 (CDC 2013). Antibiotic Growth Promoters are still used as feed additives in countries outside EU. A radical rethinking of policies to reduce antibiotic consumption and resistant is necessary worldwide.