Coccidia which is a common protozoan in domestic birds and other fowl is capable of developing resistance to antibiotics. Coccidiosis affects global food production causing economic losses that are globally estimated to be around 3 billion $ per year. This loss is caused by different coccidian species such as E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella., and depending on the species of the Eimeria involved, the infestation increases intestinal problems and causes immunosuppression in poultry flocks all around the world.
In cases of subclinical coccidiosis, production performance, water, and feed intake decreases, and animals will become more vulnerable to other diseases, especially to necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens, or Salmonella infections. If not managed properly and necessary actions are not taken, subclinical coccidiosis may develop into clinical coccidiosis. A proper prevention programme against coccidiosis will also help to decrease the linked bacterial problems of the intestinal channel as well.
The rapid increase of the world population generates each year a greater demand for food products that come associated with the intensification of the production of grains as well as of animal protein. Along with the technological development of animal rearing that is increasingly efficient, there are new requirements related to social issues, to food safety and to the environment arise. In recent years, the widespread use of antibiotics for the treatment of diseases in humans and animals and, also, in animal production has been raised as a matter of importance in food safety and public health. With the increase of these concerns, the animal rearing is being pointed as one of the great villains of the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.