Reducing AGPs usage with Essential oils
The rapid increase of the world population generates each year a greater demand for food products that come associated with the intensification of the production of grains as well as of animal protein. Along with the technological development of animal rearing that is increasingly efficient, there are new requirements related to social issues, to food safety and to the environment arise. In recent years, the widespread use of antibiotics for the treatment of diseases in humans and animals and, also, in animal production has been raised as a matter of importance in food safety and public health. With the increase of these concerns, the animal rearing is being pointed as one of the great villains of the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.
For many decades antimicrobials have been used in animal production, mainly for swine and poultry. Known as growth promoters, they have the purpose of improving the productive performance of these animals. In this regard, they act, for example, as feed nutrient absorption improvers, improving the weight gain and feed conversion, as well as helping to reduce the occurrence of diarrhea in recently weaned and growing pigs (Hernandez, 2004). Due to the association between the emergence of super-resistant bacteria and the unrestrained use of antibiotics as performance enhancers in animal production, new restrictions on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters have been implemented. For example, in 2006 the European Union had banned the use of antibiotics as growth promoters, and its use is only allowed to treat diseases (Brugalli, 2003).
Nutrition is a key issue in animal production. As the control of antibiotic use as performance enhancer is changing worldwide and to meet market demands, it is necessary to search for alternatives to the use of these substances. Currently, there are several alternative products on the market such as enzymes, probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids and essential oils, which can generate good results if used properly. Plant extracts and essential oils have received special attention, mainly for using in poultry rearing (Krishan & Narang, 2014). Essential oils are known to have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, digestion stimulating and hypolipidemic activities (Krishan & Narang, 2014). Essential oils are aromatic, volatile compounds synthesized by plants with antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties, and a repellent function to ward off insects and animals. There are several studies that document the antibacterial properties of essential oils and recognize this function in both in vitro and in vivo studies (Bento, 2013, Kalemba & Kunicka 2003, Dorman & Deans 2000, Mitsch 2004 and Tiihonen 2010). Antioxidant properties, as well as effects on the digestion physiology and GUT, are also known (Franz, 2010). The aromatic compounds and the essential oils act along the digestive tract, increasing the appetite and modulating the intestinal flora. They can be used as flavor enhancers and palatability agents, which increase feed intake by animals, thus, increasing zootechnical indexes. They may also have beneficial effects for maintaining the health of the intestinal microflora and, therefore, promoting the control of potential pathogens. Additives such as herbs and volatile oils can help control infections, leading to increased availability of essential nutrients for intestinal absorption, improving the immune response of these animals to pathogens and facilitating them to develop according to their genetic potential.
In addition to the aforementioned functions, the essential oils also have known antimicrobial activity, having an inhibitory effect on the multiplication of bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Clostridium perfringens; as well as antioxidant effect, avoiding that lipids present in the feed undergo oxidation. Furthermore, essential oils affect the lipid metabolism in the animal, increasing the concentration of antioxidant enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids in different tissues.
In summary, the essential oils improve the characteristics of the feed offered to the animals, through its antimicrobial and antioxidative effect, increasing the feed shelf life. Thus, essential oils can promote the enhancement of the digestion and consequently in the performance of the animals by the stabilization of the intestinal microbiota, elevation of the enzymatic activity and better absorption of nutrients. Moreover, they can improve the characteristics of the products of animal origin since the products present better oxidative stability. Considering the wide range of functions and beneficial effects that essential oils can offer, they can be an excellent alternative to the use of antimicrobials as growth promoters, meeting both regulatory and market requirements, and raising the quality of products of animal origin.
Article writen for XVET by Mariana Oliveira, DVM.
BENTO MHL, OUWEHAND AC, TIIHONEN K, LAHTINEN S, NURMINEN P, SAARINEN MT, SCHULZE H, MYGIND T, FISCHER J. Essential oils and their use in animal feeds for monogastric animals–Effects on feed quality, gut microbiota, growth performance and food safety: a review. Veterinarni Medicina, 58: 449-458, 2010.
BRUGALLI, I. Alimentação alternativa: a utilização de fitoterápicos ou nutracêuticos como moduladores da imunidade e desempenho animal. In: SIMPÓSIO SOBRE MANEJO E NUTRIÇÃO DE AVES E SUÍNOS, 2003, Campinas, SP.Anais. Campinas: Colégio Brasileiro de Nutrição Animal, 2003. V.1, p.167-182.
DORMAN, H. J.; DEANS, S. G. Antimicrobial Agents from Plants: Antibacterial Activity of Plant Volatile Oils. Journal of applied microbiology, v. 88, n. 2, p. 308–316, fev. 2000.
FRANZ, C.; BASER, K. H. C.; WINDISCH, W. Essential oils and aromatic plants in animal feeding—A European perspective. A review. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, v. 25, p. 327–340, 2010.
HERNÁNDEZ F., MADRID J. & GARCIA V. Influence of two plant extracts on broilers performance, digestibility, and digestive organ size. Poultry Sci. 83:169-174, 2004.
KALEMBA, D. AND KUNICKA, A. Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Essential Oils. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 10, 813-829, 2003.
KRISHAN, G.; NARANG, A. Use of essential oils in poultry nutrition: A new approach. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research, v. 1, p. 1, 2014.
MITSCH, P.; ZITTERL-EGLSEER, K.; KOHLER, B.; GABLER, C.; LOSA, R.; ZIMPERNIK, I. The Effect of Two Different Blends of Essential Oil Components on the Proliferation of Clostridium Perfringens in the Intestines of Broiler Chickens. Poultry science, v. 83, n. 4, p. 669–675, abr. 2004.
TIIHONEN, K.; KETTUNEN, H.; BENTO, M. H. L.; SAARINEN, M.; LAHTINEN, S.; OUWEHAND, A. C.; SCHULZE, H.; RAUTONEN, N. The Effect of Feeding Essential Oils on Broiler Performance and Gut Microbiota. British poultry science, v. 51, n. 3, p. 381–392, jun. 2010.
TORRES, R.N.S.; DREHER, A.; SIMIONI, T.A. Uso de antibióticos como promotor de crescimento e seus possíveis substitutos ao seu uso em frangos de corte. Nutritime Revista Eletrônica, on-line, Viçosa, v.12, n.6, p.4348-4358, nov/dez, 2015.
Footpad dermatitis in a NAGP program
Healthy animals just like healthy people, don’t need antimicrobials, and not all infections and diseases, need to be treated with antibiotics. Misuse, excessive use, or wrong use of antibiotics in humans and animals, is known to be the primary cause of the rise of superbugs, bacteria that have grown resistant to many antibiotics.
Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat, with major economic and health impact. World Bank estimated that drug-resistant infections will be responsible for a drag between 1.1 and 3.8% by 2050, on global GDP (Gross Domestic Products). A two years’ review in the UK concluded that 700,000 deaths each year can be attributed to Antimicrobial resistance.
A considerable fraction of bacterial resistance is raised from the livestock industry due to the vast history of antibiotic usage not only for treatment but as well as for growth promotion. Hence now the road to recovery and decreasing the risks of resistance also goes through the livestock industry.
And the first rule is: creating resistant animals, is a key to preventing diseases and decreasing the use of conventional treatment agents.
Due to the antibiotic resistance threat, the poultry industry worldwide is facing mounting pressure to phase out antibiotic use. The bacterial dysbiosis that has been created with antibiotic growth promoters, is now creating a significant misbalance of the individual gastrointestinal flora of animals in any region. But the only effect of antibiotics was not to create a dysbiosis. AGPs’ as well had physiological activities, such as suppressing inflammation or reducing the nutritional cost of immunity. Now the animals need to cope with more fight to balance the situation, by reaction with more systemic inflammation. There are different types of inflammations such as physiological or pathological inflammations. Although physiological inflammation is a natural element in each animal (immunity), pathological inflammation is the result of an acute microbial infection or tissue injury. One example of this kind of condition would be Foot Pad Dermatitis. In this case, the pathological inflammation would increase, and create subclinical physiological stress.
Footpad dermatitis is a great concern in the poultry industry related to animal welfare but as well as an economically important subject as chicken feet will be consumed as food in some regions of the world. Just China imports of chicken feet alone account for 300,000 tons each year.
Footpad lesions is a health condition which may require antibiotic usage, and it is suspected that broilers raised without antibiotics may have a greater incidence of footpad lesions in comparison to broilers that receive antibiotics under the same condition, as the antibiotic usage may mask some of the management failures. Thus, it is important to point out the factors increasing footpad dermatitis and controlling those factors.
There are studies showing the correlation between increased footpad lesions and unhealthy GIT, linked with elevated ammonia levels. Healthy gut, with higher intestinal integrity, supports litter quality and therefore is a useful tool to reduce footpad lesions. Improved nutrient digestibility as well as supports proper fat absorption and nutrient intake by an animal, hence reducing toxic metabolism by microbial fermentation, preventing a leaky gut as well. Thus, animals cope with less diarrhea, and water emission with feces, which contributes to better litter quality.
Ammonia, resulting from feed protein and amino acids, is detoxified to uric acid in the liver of birds and then excreted via kidneys. Hydrolyzed uric acid with the help of microbial ureases, is the first step in the production of NH3 gas in poultry manure. When the ammonia levels are higher than normal, than contact dermatitis may occur. Broilers that are not capable to move freely or that have weak bones, stand on wet litter for long times and this leads to tissue damage and pain. These animals have less movement and access to feeding. Especially when there is higher fecal contamination in the litter, the burn site on the pads, could be also the entry gate for certain bacterial agents. Once the tissue is damaged, the condition may extend to the other parts of the legs making animals totally paralyzed and susceptible to any other threat as well.
One of the best control methods is to focus on the leg and feet health in the early ages and to maintain flock uniformity. This will ensure all individual animal to have access to feed and drinking water. The stronger the animals and more homogenized the flock, as all vaccinations will work better, and all organs will be formed healthily, the animals will be resistant to an external factor or also some internal factors as the physical pain itself.
Overall tissue health, skin health, organ health, and bone health are directly related to the capacity of the animal to cope with any external factor such as bacterial and viral disease. Managing intestinal integrity, controlling bone health and uniformity, supporting kidney and hepatic health and ensuring proper oxygen intake; ensuring decreasing all stressing factors, will help us also to have control and to dominate the needs for antibiotic usage.
We as XVET have been supporting poultry with products/ programs to protect against footpad dermatitis together with good management. For more information please contact Techinal@xvetgermany.com
Methods of reducing the bacterial resistance
Dr. Zeinali, a very experienced clinical veterinarian in the poultry industry has for many years explored effective approaches to reducing Antibiotic Growth Promoters in animal rearing and consequently reducing bacterial resistance. In this article Dr. Zeinali shares short but on-point insights on how you can also create a “Better Tomorrow” by adopting a NAGP approach.
” I have worked for more than 32 years as a clinical veterinarian and consultant with a focus on diagnosis, treatment, prevention, nutrition, management in layer breeder, broiler breeder, commercial layer, and commercial broiler farms.
According to my extensive background and experience I recommend following principles to reduce the consumption of the treatment antibiotics and eliminate the growth promotor antibiotics in the poultry industry:
Management: No doubt the rigid and serious management of antibiotic consumption is a necessary and important factor.
Biosecurity: including the biosecurity in a commercial farm, breeder farm, hatchery, feed factory, slaughterhouse that has great importance in controlling diseases and reduce the use of antibiotics.
Clean water: Free of chemical, physical and microbial contamination.
Ventilation: to provide proper oxygen, temperature, moisture and clean air with minimum physical, chemical and microbial contamination.
Nutrition: should be free of toxins, heavy metals, and pathogens, and provide nutrients that are needed as for racial physiological needs, breeding condition, production, regional diseases, vaccination status, chicken density etc.
Alternatives: Use of the alternatives while improving growth and FCR can control and reduce poultry diseases that our main discussion will be in the following article.
Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that can improve microbial flora of intestine and have beneficial effects in resistance to diseases
A-1. Probiotics function
Competitive alternative for harmful bacteria to remove them
Intestine pH adjustment to remove harmful bacteria
Competing with harmful bacteria in consumption of available food
Production of Bacteriocins (specific inhibitors) to kill harmful bacteria such as E.coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus
Lack of Lactic acid antibacterial antibody production due to Muramyl dipeptide (MDP) in the cell wall
Increase the body resistance against diseases:
Macrophages and Lymphocytes activities increase
Antibody production increase
NK-cell (Natural Killer cell) increase
Phagocytosis and involved enzymes increase
Stimulation of Interferon production
Interferon is produced by Fibroblasts, Lymphocytes and T-helpers
Interferon prevents of protein production by cells infected by viruses
Interferon stimulates the immune cells such as NK-cells and microphages
Absorbing surface increase
Weight gain rate increase
A-2. Characteristics and Properties of an Effective Probiotic
Being resistant in body conditions (Enzymes, Bile and pH)
Ability to replacement and staying in the intestine
Keeping up its natures in the intestine
Non-sensitive to antibiotics
Ability to boost the immune system
Without any toxic and allergic effects
Positive effects on the host`s health
Ability to be synthesized in large scale as a live product
Long shelf life
Reasonable resistance to heat in pellet production process
This article will continue, also I need to mention that antibiotic alternatives produced by XVET company can be helpful to reduce the consumption of antibiotics and prevent the resistance to antibiotics. “
By Dr. Ali Zeinali, Ambassador for lessantibiotics.com
It’s time for a change. Our Time with Antibiotics is Running Out
A concern for humans has risen alarmingly in the last years because of the misuse of antibiotics in livestock as residues from treatments causes a negative effect on human health.
Following our mission to contribute to a safe and sustainable agriculture, as well as improve the health of both animals and humans, XVET would like to share some current insights about the use of antibiotics, in order to draw attention to the main issues and encourage the best practices among the public.
This article is following “World Antibiotic Awareness Week 2018”, a global awareness campaign run each November by World Health Organization. XVET supports WHO goal of raising awareness about this topic and encourages a more responsible use of antibiotics.
We extracted accordingly five messages appointed by World Health Organization:
“Our time with antibiotics is running out. Antibiotic resistance is rising to dangerously high levels in all parts of the world and it poses a big threat to global health. It can affect anyone, of any age, in any country. It is the bacteria itself, not the person or the animal, that becomes resistant to antibiotics. Proper use of antibiotics is key to stop drug resistance”.
“Since their discovery, antibiotics have served as the cornerstone of modern medicine. However, persistent overuse and misuse of antibiotics have encouraged the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance, which occurs when bacteria become resistant to the drugs used to treat them.
The high volume of antibiotics in food-producing animals contributes to the development of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. In some countries, the amount of antibiotics used in animals is 4 times larger than the one used in humans, where antibiotics are used for growth promotion and disease prevention, not to treat illnesses. These bacteria can be transmitted from animals to humans and can contaminate our food supply from farm to fork”.
“Although the development of resistance in such situations may be a natural consequence of necessary antimicrobial use, inadequate measures to prevent and control infection may contribute to the spread of microorganisms resistant to antimicrobial medicines.
Much antibiotic use is linked to animal production, where antibiotics are sometimes administered to prevent infections and used as a growth stimulant. Sustainable husbandry practices, including the use of vaccines, can reduce infection rates and dependence on antibiotics as well as the risk that antibiotic-resistant organisms will develop and spread through the food chain”.
“High antibiotic use may reflect over-prescription, easy access through over-the-counter sales, and more recently sales via the Internet which are widespread in many countries. Despite measures taken by some Member States, antibiotic use in humans, animals and agriculture is still increasing globally. The projected increase in demand for animal food products may lead to yet further increases in antibiotic use”.
Everyone has a role to play
“The world is running out of antibiotics. We need to take action to protect human health and stop drug resistance”.
Want to learn more? Visit www.lessantibiotics.com for more info.
(Content by: World Health Organization http://www.who.int/who-campaigns/world-antibiotic-awareness-week)
XVETs’ stand on Antibiotic Awareness Week by World Health Organization
Antibiotics are antimicrobial agents which have been employed to inhibit infections caused by bacteria. We have to mention of course that antibiotics have revolutionized human health and animal production. Antibiotics were widely used for treatment purposes, and in sub-therapeutic dosages as a growth promoter or prophylaxis in animal production. However due to the abuse, and the inclusion of human antibiotics into this practice, lately the ideal of “farm-to-fork” safe food concept has been altered, resulting in considerable risks for consumers. The biggest being antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and their impact on human health. Those molecules which became ineffective through bacterial resistance, are causing now higher medical costs, prolonged hospital stays, and increased death cases. Surprisingly, 25,000 people are dying each year across Europe from antimicrobial-resistant infections. Moreover, U.K. government estimates that drug-resistant microbes could cause more than 10 million deaths, and cost the global economy $100 trillion by the year 2050.
In the course of some decades, this real threat of resistance has been directing main markets and regions, to establish a worldwide team-work to recover and turn back the antibiotic resistance. Starting from Europe, later Northern America and now Far-East Asian countries are joining to this movement, obviously being aware that the recovery to the problem won’t be successful without a collective understanding of ways to produce food. The current activities to reduce inappropriate antibiotic usage needs even a more exhaustive approach, and for that, the European Parliament recently has approved new restrictions on the use of antibiotics on healthy farm animals, in a bid to halt the spread of antimicrobial resistance.
The new legislation, which will become law by 2022, ban the use of human reserve antibiotics in veterinary medicine absolutely, and the use of unprescribed animal antimicrobials. Vets will have to provide data on total quantity used and sold of antimicrobial medicines, and imported foods will need to meet EU standards, particularly on the type of growth enhancement that has been applied.
XVET GmbH solutions, to reduce conventional treatments and to promote preventive approach, has been our flagship purpose since our establishment. As well since one year, we have been defending our ideas also through our special website http://lessantibiotics.com/. XVET GmbH has been always highly involved in raising awareness regarding antimicrobial resistance.
Our main strategies for reducing antibiotic reduction are:
Disease management: Involves; maintaining animal health in basis of systems such as hepatic, respiratory, digestive, renal and skeletal integrity. Also applying proper farm management of water, feed, ventilation and feces management.
Biosecurity: Good prophylaxis is very cost effective for farmers and is the main key to not using antibiotics. Controlling diseases by veterinary support will positively cover all other factors which must be considered in biosecurity.
Nutrition Plan: In our times, animal nutrition knowledge, technology, and science is very extensive. Exhaustive studies of the requirements of each type of animal, even on farm basis is perfectly possible. This vast opportunity when combined with safe delivery of feed and water, will ensure an adequate supply of safe nutrients, which later will be translated by the host as a defense system and cost-effective growth.
The Alternatives: Natural or botanical nutraceuticals, phytogenics, organic acids, probiotics or prebiotics may be of help to prevent problems that may occur in farms, that are under certain pressure of infections, especially in the absence of antibiotics.
Know-how: Adequate sharing of knowledge and experiences between science, industry, and farmers will spread the valuable progress and therefore developing a suitable and personalized NAGP program.
Antibiotics could fight both bacteria and inflammation. What comes after Antibiotics?
Metabolic inflammation, either clinical or subclinical, is a serious challenge in modern animal production, which reduces profitability, alters resistance and lowers health quality. Oxidative stress, certain mycotoxins, social stress, elevated temperatures, humidity, ammonia, infections, fast growth rates, and certainly dysbiosis of the gut microbiome could cause inflammation. Especially an inflammation of the intestinal mucosa can increment the disbalance the gut microbiota, and create a domination of pathobionts (Organisms associated with chronic inflammation) that will become a consequent problem, if not handled carefully. Long lasting inflammation will weaken the animals and makes them susceptible to any other external factor. Furthermore, a small increase in body temperature due to inflammation will cause high energy loss and will cost feed conversion through immunity and antibodies.
Inflammation is not what we want. What is the solution?
Inflammation is directly affecting animal welfare. Some antibacterial agents are known to have benefits over inflammatory processes, although the detailed mechanism by which antibiotics block inflammation are not clearly understood. Antibiotics have the ability to modulate the immune system as well. They may also influence the inflammatory immune response independent of whether or not bacteria are present.
Nowadays due to the reduction of routine antibiotics usage, inflammation has become a common side effect and the need for anti-inflammatory agents has become more obvious. Especially some botanical extracts or essential oils have proven activities in reducing inflammation. Some of this activity can be explained by the inhibition of cytokines production by inflammatory cells. But it is crucial to know and understand, that other factors must be managed as well to have a proper result by using the mentioned alternatives.
XVET GmbH NAGP:
The balanced synergy of 100% naturally originated essential oils improving appetite, digestibility and combating oxidative stresses. The combination of 4 different oils, handles animals health through different angles, covering most of the needs.
The combination of alpha monoglycerides of short and medium chain fatty acids could interfere with envelope, or the cell membrane of certain pathogens that are common to livestock. NovoVital is pH independent, acting through the entire gastrointestinal tract and also absorbed for extended action. It is stable and non-corrosive.
The balanced synergy of prebiotic yeast extract, MOS (Mannan Oligo Saccharide), organic acids, and binders providing a cost-effective and efficient alternative to current conventional chemical agents for optimum immune modulation, and with an improved digestion and availability.
Synbiotic (Prebiotic + Probiotic) preparation for intestinal bio-security, enriched with organic and inorganic acids. Specific functional bacterial spores in Bacflora-F are contributing to the early establishment of beneficial flora and helping to enhance mucosa resistance against pathogens, and improve local immune response. Bacflora-F is rich in MOS (Mannan OligoSsaccharide) and also in β-Glucan.
Life after antibiotics
Antibiotics have been widely used in animal production for many years now, mainly for therapeutic purposes, additionally for prophylaxis, and finally as a growth promoter in sub-therapeutic dosages. In accordance of the Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration of 1992, which arbours the idea, “Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty, shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation”, first the developed European countries such as Sweden, and following that the whole European Union area, have banned the use of antibiotic growth promoters, and also have limited the use of molecules that are relevant to human health, in livestock. Finally this year USA has joined the regulation and as well as Far East countries such as Thailand, Indonesia, etc. also are following a strong projection of decreasing the antibiotic usage in general. This positive approach, of course, brings a certain responsibility of such as improving the biosecurity, enhancing management measures, focusing on nutrition, the handling of the digestive tract, the use of functional additives, whilst most important of them focusing on tissue integrity, immunity, reducing oxidative stress, and also aiming to decrease as much as possible the bacterial load, that will be shed to the environment.
When it comes to switching from AGPs to alternative solutions, it is very important that the focus should not be only on the reduction of E. coli or necrotic enteritis (and related coccidiosis), but as well, it is very important to understand the background of AGPs and their mode of action. Apart from the most common known effects such as decreasing the load of E.coli and C. perfringrens, or creating a dysbiosis through the digestive channel to save some energy for the host; directly, or indirectly AGPs had influences on the physiological, nutritional or metabolic aspects as well. Such as nutrient absorption, energy retention, liver protein synthesis, immunity, feed intake, and nitrogen retention as well as optimizing, feed transit time, ammonia production, gut wall morphology, bile degradation products, Fecal moisture, fatty acid oxidation, mucosal cell turnover, fecal fat excretion, etc.(1)
When deciding on the correct and suitable alternatives, it is important to seek and understand that all or most of these aspects will be covered with one, or more additive in order to maintain the target related with the genetical capacity of the animal of growth, weight gain, livability, and FCR.
The use of organic acids, probiotics, prebiotics, enzymes, fatty acids, and botanical extracts can fulfill most of these aspects, when used together with an effective toxin control, suitable vaccination programme, and improved management that also involves biosecurity.
Any kind of alternative growth promotion is directly related to the quality of the management in the farm, meaning the better the management, the better the gains and profits to be expected from the feed additives.
Contact us on email@example.com to learn more about what Non-Antibiotic Growth Promoters we can offer.
(Gauthier, R. 2002. Intestinal health, the key to productivity: The case of organic acids. XXVII Convention ANECA-WPDC, Puerto Vallarta, Jal. Mexico)
The path of Non-Antibiotic Growth Promoters
Understanding basic physiological and biological characteristics of the digestive system nowadays, is a base of modern nutrition of livestock. Gastrointestinal tract proposes the most important task: the nutritional absorption; and therefore its mucosa must be managed to remain undisturbed. Only a healthy intestinal tract can ensure optimal absorption, which is the main gate to the genetical capacity of a growing animal. Focusing on this one essential fact, and delivering right nutritional tools, will make our path to non-antibiotic growth enhancement, easier and smoother.
Prebiotics are defined as non-digestible or partially digestible food ingredients that beneficially stimulate the growth or activity of the beneficial flora. Food ingredients to be classified as prebiotic must have characteristics such as neither to be hydrolyzed nor absorbed in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract. A good example would be, MOS (Mannanoligosaccharides) which is derived from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall. Literature shows that bacteria with fimbriae of mannose affinity, such as Escherichia coli or Salmonella spp., will readily attach MOS, and this will avoid them to attach the intestinal mucosa, preventing them to colonize and multiply. This will lead to an increased villi length, and healthy mucosa, with a better resorption surface; and more goblet cells along the gastrointestinal channel. Together with the ß-glucan fraction of the yeast extracts, this rolling activity will lead to improved local immunity and better utilization of all nutrients. Using prebiotics as an alternatives growth promoter is an idea with justified nutritional benefit.
Probiotics are considered as functional spores of microorganism that are native to the animal gut, which are beneficial for host when administered continuously but especially at the very beginning of the lifespan. They allow the normal intestinal microbial population to build up a balance and help to cope against transient pathogens by preventing them to attach and colonize. This results in a better cellular activity and communication to generate better immunity and as well nutrient absorption capacity. Many studies have shown the beneficial influence on commercial animals by enhancing weight gain, improving feed conversion efficiency, increasing egg/milk/meat production, lowering the incidence of diseases as well as decreasing mortality rates.
Probiotics below, are the most common and known:
Subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis from Bacillus Genus
Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus from Lactobacillus Genus
Enterococcus faecium from Enterococcus Genus
Bacillus spp exist since 250 million years ago and also could be found in the normal intestinal flora of poultry. They germinate in the gastrointestinal tract and also may enhance digestibility and absorption of nutrients in addition to overall immune function of the gut. Lactobacillus spp. And Bacillus spp. Are dominant in competitive exclusion activity of pathogens. Lactobacillus spp. are lactic acid producing bacteria that lowers the intestinal lumen pH, creating an unfavorable environment for potentially pathogenic bacteria and at the same time, it positively affects the equilibrium of the rest of gastrointestinal microbiota, creating a safety barrier that enhances many parameters in one action. Likewise, Enterococcus faecium contributes to immune fraction development and increasing the benefits of the safety barrier.
Probiotics and prebiotics are individually effective when used alone, but the real success and the benefits are much more established when they are used together, and as well when the stomach acidification is joined with this partnership.
Bacflora F is a triple effect, heat resistant synbiotic product enriched with organic acids. Bacflora F contains bacterial spores which are helping to the establishment and maintenance of the native beneficial flora. Mixture of Organic and inorganic acids reduce the pH, improve digesta quality that is passed to the intestines and help to improve performance parameters. They also possess antimicrobial, antifungal and antibacterial activities by creating a low pH environment. The major part of Bacflora F is a high-quality yeast extract from Saccaromyces cerevisiae that helps the probiotic bacteria and as well as the existing beneficial flora.
Bacflora F supports:
Quick beneficial gut microflora establishment, or speed up the recovery of the gut microflora after treatments, diseases or stress.
Feed conversion (FCR) and weight gain
Decreasing transient pathogens, and lowering the incidence of shedding these pathogens to the environment.
Increases the resistance of the animals in general.
For more information please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
References are available on request.
Reducing antibiotic resistance with monoglycerides and free fatty acids
Antimicrobials have been used in animal feed for about 70 years to treat diseases, boost growth and obtain improvement in productivity (FAO 2018). Use of antibiotics to promote animal growth has been banned in European Union (EU) since January 1, 2006. Europe has done it and USA is in progress. Antimicrobial resistance remains a serious threat to public health worldwide. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, 2017 (ECDC 2017) from many European countries is reported that high percentages of isolates with resistance to key antimicrobial groups still exist which shows great concern and represent a serious threat to patient safety. Overview of the annual morbidity and mortality of antibiotic-resistant infections in the United States, estimating their number at approximately 2 million and the number of death associated with these infections at 23,000 (CDC 2013). Antibiotic Growth Promoters are still used as feed additives in countries outside EU. A radical rethinking of policies to reduce antibiotic consumption and resistant is necessary worldwide.
As global population has been increasing, livestock production must be increased significantly to overcome the high demand. Europe was the first major market where restricted use of antibiotics in meat and poultry production. Furthermore, the consumer interest in meat and poultry products either without the use of antibiotics or restricted antibiotic use has increased. Non-Antibiotic Growth Promoters (NAGPs) has been replacing to Antibiotic Growth Promoters (AGP) due to no risk for bacterial resistance and undesired residues in animal production. Additionally, NAGPs are helping to reduce environmental emissions with the main emphasis on phytogenic, organic acids, probiotics, prebiotics, fatty acids and some trace minerals as well.
Bacterial pathogens (Gram-negative/ positive) of medical importance such as Escheria coli and Enterococci are a common cause of healthcare-associated infection, which could be able to survive and persist for long periods in the hospital environment and they are present in animal gut which are able to develop high-level resistance to antimicrobial. Based on ECDC report (2017) these two bacteria are well spread in Europe:
Escherichia coli which is one of the most frequent infections worldwide requires close attention regarding antibiotic resistance as the percentage of isolates resistant to commonly-used antibiotics continues to increase throughout Europe. The highest resistance percentages were reported from southern and south-eastern Europe.
Enterococcus faecium resistant is becoming common specially reported in countries in eastern and southeastern Europe and in Ireland. However, a significant increase in the percentage of resistance to faecium isolates was observed in countries reporting comparatively high resistance percentage.
Short/ medium chain fatty acids and their monoglycerides antimicrobial activity
Antimicrobial activities of lipids were reported first time at 19th century. Later on, many studies demonstrated that fatty acids inhibit or kill a wide spectrum of pathogens. Short and medium chain fatty acids (SCHFAs/ MCHFAs) have activity to extend along the entire intestinal channel and moreover, they become systemic and attack agents that may be present in other tissues. Short and medium chain fatty acids are known to be fighting against certain infection-causing factors, and as well against some protozoal agents that are common in animal production. Fatty acids and their monoglycerides are effective in inhibiting bacterial growth. Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and their monoglycerides have potential activity against bacteria molecules both against Gram- negative and Gram- positive bacteria. Among saturated fatty acids with chain lengths between 6 and 18 carbons, lauric acid and monolaurate which is the monoglyceride of lauric acid was identified having the most potent inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria and enveloped viruses.
Is there an environmentally friendly solution against Gram+/ – bacteria without antibiotic resistance threat? We have the answer: NovoVital
A complex of free fatty acids and monoglycerides of Butyric acid (C4); Caprylic acid (C8); Capric acid (C10) and Lauric Acid (C12) antibacterial activity was evaluated against 37 strains of Escherichia coli (Gram negative) and 17 presenting resistance of Enterococci (Gram positive), which are among the bacteria those that easily acquire antibiotic resistance and can cause infections in humans has been studied at the Department of Life Science, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy. Antibiotic resistance was assessed by minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The antimicrobials tested for Gram-negative bacteria were ampicillin, piperacillin, meropenem, amikacin, cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin. Gram-positive resistance was tested by vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, teicoplanin, tetracycline, rifampin and erythromycin and all strains utilized in this study were resistant to at least two of the antibiotics tested.
The results obtained showed that NovoVital is effective on both Gram-positive/ Negative bacteria. It has a strong activity against Gram-positive Enterococci, while only concentrations above 1% were able to inhibit the growth of Gram-negative E. coli strains. With regard to E. coli strains, the majority of them, 21 (58.3%) were inhibited by a concentration (MIC) of 1.4% of the blend and the remaining strains were inhibited by concentrations (MIC) between 1.1 and 1.6% About the Enterococci, all strains were inhibited by tested concentrations between 0.1 and 0.4%. It is concluded that alternative substances such as NovoVital can be considerate for the potential treatment of multidrug-resistant strains.
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Antimicrobial resistance in the food chain
Antimicrobial resistance is rising to dangerously high levels in all parts of the world and threatening the ability to treat common infectious diseases. World Health Organization (WHO) shares insights on how Antibiotic Resistance is important in Animal Health and how it develops from Farm-to-Fork.